Cultural Aspects of International Business

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Autor: Przemysław Skulski (red.)

ISBN: 978-83-7695-807-1

Rok wydania: 2020

Liczba stron: 206

Format: B5

Oprawa: Miękka

Wersja elektroniczna: IBUK


The main objective of this textbook is to show cultural aspects and their influence of conducting business internationally. The authors aimed at providing information which can be useful in the process of making business decisions by taking into consideration the existing cultural diversification. This is why the theoretical discourse is accompanied by numerous examples, bringing to the book also a practical dimension. The book is addressed to a wide circle of readers – those interested in the phenomena occurring in the world economy and the dimensions of contemporary culture, as well as students of international business relations. It may also interest entrepreneurs, both those already present in international markets, and those who are at the planning stage of such future activities.

Introduction (Przemysław Skulski) 9

1. Culture – definitions, subjects, typologies (Przemysław Skulski) 13

1.1. Culture – a term with multiple meanings 13

1.2. Culture as an element of a company’s international environment 18

1.3. Review of selected typologies of culture 26

1.3.1. Dimensions of culture by Geert Hofstede 27

1.3.2. Typology by Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner 29

1.3.3. High and low context culture by Edward T. Hall 30

1.3.4. Types of culture according to Richard R. Gesteland 31

1.3.5. The GLOBE Model 32

2. Religion, values, customs (Aleksandra Kuźmińska-Haberla) 36

2.1. Religion and business activity 36

2.1.1. Religion and the work ethic 37

2.1.2. Religion and dietary restrictions regarding certain types of food 39

2.1.3. Influence of religion on advertising 41

2.2. Values and attitudes 45

2.3. History, traditions, customs 49

2.3.1. Influence of colonialism on the culture of the conquered countries 50

2.3.2. Historical motifs in advertising 51

2.3.3. Significance of traditions and customs in running a business 53

2.4. Symbolism 55

3. Verbal and non-verbal communication in the context of intercultural negotiations (Anna H. Jankowiak) 62

3.1. Importance of communication in business 62

3.2. Models of communication 63

3.3. Verbal communication 66

3.4. Non-verbal communication 70

3.4.1. Kinesthetics – gestures, body language, facial expression 71

3.4.2. Clothes and appearance 75

3.4.3. Importance of distance in non-verbal communication 75

3.5. Influence of communication on the negotiation process 77

3.5.1. Principles of correct business communication in Japan 78

3.5.2. Principles of correct business communication in China 79

3.5.3. Principles of correct business communication in Germany 80

3.5.4. Principles of correct business communication in France 80

3.5.5. Principles of correct business communication in Great Britain 81

3.5.6. Principles of correct business communication in Russia 82

3.5.7. Principles of correct business communication in the United States 83

3.5.8. Principles of correct business communication in Brazil 84

4. Education and material culture as elements of national culture (Sebastian Bobowski) 85

4.1. Education and culture 85

4.2. Rate of enrolment 91

4.2.1. Rate of enrolment and the level of social development according to UNDP 92

4.2.2. Enrolment ratio in the OECD approach 94

4.3. Illiteracy index 100

4.3.1. Illiteracy in the UNESCO research 102

4.4. Material culture 106

5. Social organization (Szymon Mazurek) 111

5.1. The degree of social organization 111

5.2. Social roles of men and women 117

5.2.1. The war between sexes in advertising 125

5.2.2. The meaning of gender in the workplace 128

6. Selected problems of a multicultural environment 136

6.1. Culture shock (Aleksandra Kuźmińska-Haberla) 136

6.2. Stereotypes and prejudice (Aleksandra Kuźmińska-Haberla) 142

6.3. Country of Origin Effect (COE) and Syndrome NIH (Aleksandra Kuźmińska-Haberla) 144

6.4. Political correctness (Aleksandra Kuźmińska-Haberla) 149

6.5. Research in a multicultural environment (Przemysław Skulski) 151

7. Specificity of business activities in selected regions 158

7.1. Is ‘multi-culti’ OK? – business activity in the European culture area (Aleksandra Kuźmińska-Haberla) 158

7.1.1. Relations or transactions? 158

7.1.2. Pünktlichkeit versus mañana 160

7.1.3. A reticent German woman in business or other differences 162

7.2. How to achieve understanding with a samurai – specificity of

business activity in Asia and the Pacific Rim (Aleksandra Kuźmińska-Haberla) 164

7.2.1. It is easier in a group 165

7.2.2. Never lose face and do not allow others to lose theirs 165

7.2.3. Who is higher up, and who lower down, or a hierarchy 166

7.2.4. Guanxi – in the world of mutual ties 168

7.3. How to conquer the ‘Wild West’ – business culture in the USA (Anna H. Jankowiak) 170

7.3.1. The rules of conquest in the ‘Wild West’ 171

7.4. Macho, macho – business activity in Latin America (Szymon Mazurek) 176

7.5. Africa, the ‘New Continent’ for business (Sebastian Bobowski) 181

7.5.1. Business etiquette in Africa 183

7.5.2. Negotiating tips in selected African countries 184

7.5.3. How to do business in Egypt 192

Conclusion (Przemysław Skulski) 195

Bibliography 197

List of tables 205

List of figures 206

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